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Irregular breathing was observed more frequently in female ratsexposed to 3. In general, these lung lesions increased in incidence and severity with increased exposure to cobalt sulfate heptahydrate. The incidence of squamous metaplasia in 1. Multifocally, throughout the lungs, pulmonary architecture was distorted by a combination of inflammatory cells, fibrosis, and epithelial metaplasia.

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Granulomatous inflammation was characterized by accumulations of alveolar macrophages with exophytic papilloma bladder cytoplasm, occasional multinucleated giant cells and cholesterol clefts, cell debris and few neutrophils.

In these areas, the alveolar interstitium and occasionally the exophytic papilloma bladder pleura were variably thickened by dense fibrous connective tissue which often effaced alveoli Although a diffuse change, aggregates of homogeneous to granular eosinophilic material within alveolar lumens alveolar proteinosis were often pronounced within the areas of chronic inflammation. Metaplasia of the alveolar epithelium in alveoli within and at the periphery of foci of inflammation was characterized by replacement of exophytic papilloma bladder Type I epithelial cells with plump cuboidal or ciliated columnar epithelial cells.

The incidences of alveolar epithelial hyperplasia in all groups of exposed males and exophytic papilloma bladder females exposed to 3.

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In females exposed to 1. Hyperplasia generally represented an increase in numbers of epithelial cells along alveolar walls with maintenance of normal alveolar architecture. Multiple hyperplastic lesions were often observed in animals receiving higher concentrations of cobalt sulfate heptahydrate.

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The benign neoplasms typical of those observed spontaneously were exophytic papilloma bladder distinct masses that often compressed surrounding tissue.

These epithelial cells were typically uniform and similar to hyperplastic counterparts. Generally, these lesions had a rounded outline and a central fibrous core containing dispersed glandular alveolar structures lined by uniformly cuboidal epithelial cells.

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Aggregates of exophytic papilloma bladder necrotic inflammatory cells were also present in adjacent pheoalveoli and often within the glandular structures.

Peripherally, the fibroproliferative lesions had one to several layers of epithelium which coursed along and often extended into adjacent alveoli, frequently forming papillary projections.

These epithelial cells were often slightly pleomorphic with occasional mitotic figures. The smallest of these lesions were usually observed adjacent to areas of chronic inflammation.

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Squamous metaplasia was a minor change consisting of a small cluster of alveoli in which the normal epithelium was replaced by multiple layers of flattened squamous epithelial cells that occasionally formed keratin. One 3. These were diagnosed as cysts. In one 1.

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In general, diagnoses of squamous lesions were made only when the lesion composition was almost entirely squamous epithelium. Adrenal medulla: The incidence of benign pheochromocytoma in 3.

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The incidences of benign, complex, or malignant pheochromocytoma combined in 1. The incidences of bilateral pheochromocytoma in exposed males slightly exceeded that in the chamber control group.

The incidence of hyperplasia was not significantly increased in exposed males or females. Focal hyperplasia and pheochromocytoma are considered to constitute a morphological continuum in the adrenal medulla.

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Focal hyperplasia consisted exophytic papilloma bladder irregular, small foci of small- to normal-sized medullary cells arranged in packets or solid clusters slightly larger exophytic papilloma bladder normal; compression of surrounding parenchyma was minimal or absent. Benign pheochromocytomas were well-delineated masses often with altered architecture and variable compression of surrounding parenchyma.

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Larger neoplasms usually exhibited greater cellular pleomorphism and atypia than smaller neoplasms. Malignant pheochromocytomas were identified when there was invasion of or beyond the adrenal capsule or when distant metastases exophytic papilloma bladder observed.

In this study, the incidence of pheochromocytoma in 3. The marginally increased incidence of pheochromocytoma in males was considered an uncertain finding because it occurred only in the 1.

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Nose: The incidences of hyperplasia of the lateral wall of the nose and atrophy of the olfactory epithelium in all exposed groups of males and females were significantly greater than those in the chamber controls, and the severities of these lesions increased with increasing exposure concentration.

The incidences of squamous metaplasia of the lateral wall of the nose and metaplasia of the olfactory epithelium in exophytic papilloma bladder. Although the incidence and severity exophytic papilloma bladder nasal lesions exophytic papilloma bladder with increased exposure to cobalt sulfate heptahydrate, they involved limited portions of nasal epithelium and none were severe. Hyperplasia and squamous metaplasia were minimal to mild, unilateral or bilateral, and involved the transitional epithelium along the walls and turbinates of the anterior nasal passage.


Hyperplasia was characterized by an increase in thickness of the epithelium from the normal one to two layers to two exophytic papilloma bladder more layers, while squamous exophytic papilloma bladder represented areas where the normal transitional epithelium was replaced by multiple layers of flattened epithelial cells. More posterior exophytic papilloma bladder the nose, along the dorsal meatus, atrophy of the olfactory epithelium was characterized by loss of cell layers and disorganization of remaining epithelium, and in some instances, increased prominence of sensory cell nuclei.

Metaplasia was characterized by replacement of olfactory epithelium with respiratory-type ciliated columnar epithelium. Larynx: The incidences of squamous metaplasia of the epiglottis in all exposed groups of males and females were significantly greater than those in the chamber controls, and the severity of this lesion increased with increasing exposure concentration. Squamous exophytic papilloma bladder was limited to the base of the epiglottis and was not a severe lesion in exposed rats.